The injector, also called injector, is used to supply the fuel in atomized form as an air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. The most common injection form is the intake manifold injection. Here, the air-fuel mixture is formed prior to feeding to the combustion chamber and passed only during the intake stroke into the combustion chamber. Efficient engines with direct injection form the air-fuel mixture directly in the combustion chamber, so that a higher compression and thus a much higher efficiency can be achieved with better performance. About a previous high-pressure pump, the fuel is usually supplied with about 200 bar via a fuel rail to the individual injectors. The nozzles meter and atomize the fuel directly in the combustion chamber in the further course. The mixture is then burned by a spark through a spark plug. The fine atomization of the fuel mixture here plays a crucial role to ensure good combustion and thus a good emission behavior.
Possibility of performance increases
From the factory mostly nozzles are used with small nozzle bores, which allow even at idle burns with low soot content in order to achieve a correspondingly better exhaust behavior. The problem here is that at higher power requirements and in the higher speed range, the small holes theoretically not sufficient to optimally cover the fuel requirements. This problem can be counteracted by resorting to the injection nozzles with larger nozzle holes when replacing the nozzles. In addition to a significant improvement in the power curve in the upper speed range, the operation of the previous high-pressure pump requires less power due to the now lower pressures. Thus, a performance increase of about 10% can already be expected in the middle speed range.
Challenges when replacing the injectors
Nevertheless, replacing the factory-designed nozzles usually also leads to a higher load on the engine and the material due to higher combustion pressures and possibly higher temperatures in the upper speed range. In addition, the exchange of the nozzle also carries the risk that an unsuitable nozzle is selected, which then, for example, a slightly different length and thus other seat depth in the combustion chamber (in the case of direct injection) having. Again, this can lead to incorrect operation of the nozzle in the form of overheating and engine damage. The biggest problem, however, is the expiry of the operating permit due to poor exhaust gas values at the next exhaust emission test (AU), since now by choosing larger nozzle bores no fine atomization of the fuel and thus a worse combustion of the fuel and worse exhaust emissions follows. On the engine side, the inadequate combustion can also lead to coking of the injection nozzles, which first results in a jerky operation and, in the worst case, in a complete injection stop by the engine control unit.
Conclusion for the replacement of the injectors
In general, correct replacement of the nozzles offers new ways to improve the performance of the engine without being too fast in the area of engine damage. But it is almost always necessary that a correction of the engine control unit must be consulted in order to adapt to the problems described above by low pump pressures and the poor dissipation behavior of the new nozzle. Modified injectors should be considered as an enhanced performance upgrade. Only when a chip tuning (charged engine), a new exhaust system or an air-intake system was installed and even more power to be achieved, only then should you think about new injectors and other changes to the hardware of the engine.
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