The injectors or the injection valves are there to supply the engine with the exact amount of fuel before combustion. In the case of injection nozzles, diesel engines are also referred to as injectors. Often it happens, however, that the injectors Coke or are generally contaminated, causing them to wear out or clog. This can happen with both gasoline and diesel engines. If you're lucky, the problems can get through additives be eliminated again.
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- Benefits of Fuel Injection?
- Manifold injection vs. Direct injection
- Why injectors can be defective
- How are defective injection nozzles noticeable?
- The cleaning of injection nozzles by an injection system cleaner
- The cleaning of injection nozzles in an ultrasonic bath
- Have the injection nozzles professionally cleaned
- What does it cost to clean injection nozzles?
- Inspection of the injection nozzles by a workshop
- What do new injection nozzles cost?
- Tutorials: cleaning the injectors
Due to the many advantages, it came to the end of the 80s that they were used until then carburettor have been replaced by the new petrol injection. Modern injection nozzles are solenoid valves that are electronically controlled with extremely high precision. This process used to be done mechanically. The Engine control unit connects the injection nozzles with other components and sensors that are essential for combustion. The greatest advantage that gasoline injection brings with it is that fuel consumption is significantly reduced by such an injection due to the higher efficiency. Furthermore, regulated by the injection catalysts be installed, which results in cleaned exhaust gases. (Back to overview)
There is at least one injector for every cylinder in an engine. The injection nozzles are either located in the intake tract (in this case one speaks of an intake manifold injection) or in the combustion chamber of the cylinder (this is referred to as direct injection), where they are responsible for atomizing the fuel. Some modern models, for example the Audi R8 V10, also have a combination of manifold injection and direct injection. If both variants are installed, the two injections alternate in order to reduce nitrogen oxides, which is ultimately noticeable through improved power delivery. However, an overpressure must be provided so that a corresponding atomization can be carried out. For example, the pressure with manifold injection is between 3 and 6 bar, while with direct injection it can even be up to 350 bar. This is only surpassed by modern common rail diesel engines: With these engines with direct injection, the pressure can reach an incredible 2500 bar. (Back to overview)
The injection nozzles have extremely fine bores, which can clog relatively quickly and thus have defects in the long term. This can be the case, for example, if unfiltered fuel was used. Such problems should, however, be resolved quickly, as fuel consumption increases and optimal performance is no longer given. With direct injection it can even damage other components. For example, it can happen that holes burn in the pistons, as no mist is formed, but a real jet that burns on the bottom of the piston. In the case of direct injectors, the edges of the injection nozzles can fray over the long term, which also counteracts efficient injection. The most common reason for a defect, however, is coking of the nozzles, which in some cases can ultimately lead to a permanent failure. Other defects that can occur are deposits caused by additives, damaged cable connections to the control unit and short circuits in the solenoid coils located in the injection nozzles. In addition, the sealing rings can wear out, which can lead to fuel loss. (Back to overview)
How noticeable a defect is depends on how many injection nozzles are defective and also on how severe the damage is. Symptoms of a defect can be, for example, more or less pronounced drops in performance, poor exhaust gas behavior, difficulties starting, increased fuel consumption, restless idling, the temporary or permanent lighting of the Engine control lamp or even an engine knock and combustion misfires. As already mentioned, a defect in the injection nozzles should be rectified immediately, because the consequential damage can sometimes be enormous. For example, if unburned fuel gets into the catalytic converter or the particulate Filter these components can be severely damaged or even destroyed. If the fuel washes off the oil film on the cylinder wall, it can cause piston seizure. So, as you can see, broken injectors are not to be trifled with and as soon as you experience the above symptoms, you should go to the workshop as soon as possible. (Back to overview)
In older vehicles in particular, cleaning the injection nozzles can ensure improved injection behavior and often better exhaust gas behavior. If the injection nozzles are to be cleaned with an injection system cleaner, it is essential to note which cleaner has been approved by the vehicle manufacturer. After all, the additive then flows through the entire fuel system and must also withstand the high pressures. (Back to overview)
If the injection nozzles are particularly dirty and can be easily removed for this purpose, as is the case with intake manifold injection, cleaning in an ultrasonic bath is recommended. Here it can also be an advantage to clean or even replace the microfilters, which are often located above the nozzles. New sealing rings should also be installed at the same time as new injection nozzles are installed. (Back to overview)
If you do not want to clean the injection nozzles or injectors yourself, professional cleaning is also possible, which is offered by some companies. If you choose this type of cleaning, the valves are also activated - the nozzles open and close, which improves the efficiency of the cleaning. Companies that have specialized in this cleaning are also able to determine the jet pattern of the nozzles and can also check the flow rate and throughput. (Back to overview)
How much it costs to clean the injectors in the end depends on the type of injectors, engine and vehicle type. If intake manifold injectors are cleaned, this is the cheapest and costs around 20-30 euros for a nozzle. With direct injection, the costs are between 30 and 80 euros. So-called piezo injectors are often built into a diesel engine, and cleaning costs between 60 and 85 euros per injector. Note that additional costs for installing and removing the nozzles are added to these prices, which is more expensive with direct injectors, as the nozzles are usually more difficult to reach here. If it is a diesel engine, its stuck injectors can only be removed with a special tool. Depending on how many nozzles there are and how easily they can be reached, the working time can easily be over 6 hours. Sometimes the nozzles are also destroyed if they are unusually stuck. (Back to overview)
Workshops are able to check the injectors without removing them. This works, for example, by reading out the fault memory and by checking the cable connections with a multimeter. A fuel pressure test can also be used to check that other components are functioning properly - for example a defective high-pressure pump or a damaged fuel pressure regulator. (Back to overview)
Again, the costs are different. Valves that work in the intake manifold cost around 40 euros, while injection nozzles for modern direct injectors or injectors for common rail diesels can cost more than 200 euros. This is of course particularly annoying when several or perhaps even all of the nozzles have to be replaced. (Back to overview)
Of course that had not happened yet!
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