The type approval defines in the StVZO the admissibility of vehicle parts for the granting of the general operating permit (ABE). Equally important are the EU conformity assessment and the ECE regulations.
Legal basis of type approval
The legal basis for the type approval creates the § 22a StVZO. It stipulates that equipment must be fitted to vehicles in a specific, officially approved type, irrespective of whether they are subject to licensing or registration. The list of these facilities is long, including but not limited to auxiliary heating, tires, anti-slip devices, foiling, frontal protection systems, overrun brakes, tow bars and rails, additional headlamps and other lights, a modified horn, modified safety belts and restraints for children. For such parts, an approval procedure in accordance with § 22a Abs. 2 StVZO in accordance with the provisions of FzTV (Vehicle Parts Regulation). According to § 1 para. 1 FzTV vehicle parts within the ABG (General type approval) for series production or through an EBG (individual approval). The ABG parts carry an official approval mark after their approval. Only then may they be installed and sold. The EBG parts are identified by an approval certificate, which the driver must carry. They are noted in the approval.
The certification marks and test centers of the type approval
The Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt, which has the sovereignty over the general type approval, awards test marks consisting of a three-periodic wavy line, one to two code letters and a number. Sometimes there are additional characters. The code letters stand for the corresponding vehicle parts, such as D for safety glass or foil, E for tachograph, L for anti-slip devices and so on. There are two code letters when vehicle parts of different types are approved at the same time. In addition, there are internationally agreed test marks. These begin with an E and a small 1 (for Germany) in a circle, then follow the code letter outside the circle. Inspection bodies for type approval are the technical services recognized in accordance with § 30 EC Vehicle Approval Ordinance, ie TÜV, KÜS, DEKRA, GTÜ etc.
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